Dissemination confines the promotion and awareness raising activities. In general, dissemination is a process aimed at providing information to the target group on the project process, activities and results, in ways that will facilitate research uptake in decision-making and practice (Wilson, 2010).
The development of a dissemination plan is an imperative part of an evidence-based project. Though the researchers working in hand may not know the final results of their research until it is finished, first working on a dissemination plan can help the team of the researchers establish key audiences and concentrate on the project.
Dissemination should be aimed at two primary target groups. These target groups are entities or individuals that may benefit from the project based results. For efficient and effective dissemination of the project results, it is necessary that the target groups be established at an earlier stage of the project.
In disseminating and implementing clinical performance, the very first step by the researchers should be to ask themselves what are their primary objective with the project. Such questions will help strengthen their purpose of spreading the news of their project evidence not only to inform but to change clinical practices in line with their new evidence.
Therefore, this will also help the researchers establish measures of how they will know that a change in practices is an improvement or not. Also, it will assist in developing changes. That is, those changes the researchers can make that will result in improvement.
One primary group is the direct target group. The researchers should intend to reach people with low education level and with long-term unemployment. In the dissemination plan, researchers should also target trainers and educators, counsellors and career experts. Other stakeholders in the direct target group may also include nurses, nursing academics, ethnic health workers, women’s health centers and rural and remote health workers.
The other primary target group is the secondary target group. This includes secondary target groups, other health professionals and those involved with health at policy or administrative levels such as cancer organizations and health departments. As an indirect target group, the researchers can identify private organizations and decision makers, public representatives, practitioners running the field of adult education and cross-sectoral of non-formal learning providers.
In reaching the target groups, there should be a systematic framework for each target group. Besides, this will increase the possibilities that the target group will use the results of the project even after the project, and that national policy maker who brings about and propagate common operational models to respond to the recession from an integrated perspective are delivered.
Dissemination and exploitation should be closely organized and cooperated as they are related work packages. Exploitation at this moment refers to those activities of mainstreaming the results of the project to the appropriate target groups either the direct or indirect and convincing them to adopt the final outcomes of the projects.
The main objective of a dissemination plan is to provide the researchers with an effective and efficient blueprint which they will follow in their research, in dissemination of their work and the final results of their dissemination plan,the researchers should prefer a dissemination strategy that would help them as widely as possible to disseminate their findings and ensure that end-users take into account their findings when considering emerging issues relevant to those stakeholders.
Dissemination and implementation should be both costs efficient and active. Thereby, the dissemination plan should guide the team of researchers in adopting a dissemination strategy that suits them best by the resources they have for the dissemination process and activities. Using the plan researchers will be able to take a cost-effective dissemination strategy as they would have been in able to establish their audiences.
The plan may also assist researchers to adopt dissemination strategies that will overcome the barriers that hinder their audiences from changing their practices in line with their evidence and results making the dissemination inefficient and unworthy.
Such obstacles to dissemination include habits formed over some period of years and use of non-standard abbreviations by nurses and dosages. This proves to be a challenge to dissemination as most people tend to be rigid to change their habits even after the new evidence of the researchers final results.
Another barrier is the unwillingness to act on the pharmacy department requests. Even after the proof of researchers by dissemination, people tend to be unwilling to act in line with results of the project due to the request by pharmacists thus proving to be a significant challenge to the entire project and dissemination process.
Time pressure on nurses also proves to be a barrier as it makes them need to use abbreviations of their own. Even after the evidence of the effects of using inappropriate abbreviations the time pressure continues to be a challenge for them to change in line with the proof of the project.
Lack of knowledge of adverse drug events due to inappropriate abbreviations and dosages is also a barrier to dissemination, but all these obstacles can be overcome if appropriate measures are taken to curb them and extraction of a good dissemination plan and strategies that will appropriately hinder those obstacles.
The dissemination plan will also guide the team of researchers use a dissemination strategy that will efficiently help them get a good feedback from the whole dissemination process of their project. Audit and feedback are a continuous process in which clinical performances are summarised over a given period and the overall data is then fed back to the clinician (Thomson et al. 1998c). Hence, there may be recommendations for action or not.
The feedback will help the researchers know whether their project was worth, effective and after the dissemination, whether their evidence was taken into account or not. A change in practice in line with the researchers’ evidence shows an accomplishment in the purpose of the dissemination process by researchers and the vice versa is also true.